Idaho congressional candidate surveys for Nov. 3 election | Complete election coverage

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U.S. Congress

Idaho U.S. Senate

Natalie M. Fleming.jpg

Natalie M. Fleming

Name: Natalie M. Fleming

Paulette Jordan cropped may 2020

Paulette Jordan

Name: Paulette Jordan

Jim Risch.jpg

Jim Risch

Name: Jim Risch

Ray J. Writz.jpg

Ray J. Writz

Name: Ray J. Writz

  • Party: Con
  • Mailing Address: Coeur d’Alene, Idaho 83815
  • Campaign Phone: (208) 818-4059
  • Website:


Q: 1 What experience has prepared you to represent Idaho in the U.S. Senate?

Natalie M. Fleming: As a rancher’s daughter I came to love the land and the worker. As a software developer I’ve learned enough to begin the battle to protect Americans from mass surveillance. As a single mom, I’ve learned to fight the good fight and love fiercely and work the problem instead of throwing money at it. As a SpEd (special ed) mom I’ve faced hard things, and gained strength from the strongest of parents. As a sub teacher and parent I’ve seen firsthand the needs of our schools. As an American I love my country.

Paulette Jordan: I was raised to advocate for others and protect the earth’s priceless resources. I started my career of public service as the youngest person elected to the Coeur d’Alene Tribal Council. After college, I went on to work as a business development strategist in energy policy and worked in economic development with sovereign tribal nations. Serving in the Idaho Legislature for two terms taught me a great deal, including how to unseat an incumbent Republican and create important policy change.

Jim Risch: I’ve served two terms in the US Senate, supporting Idaho’s small businesses as Small Business Chairman and working on national and int’l issues important to Idaho as Foreign Relations Chairman. In leadership in the Idaho Senate, I worked with both parties to improve the lives of Idaho families. I brought jobs to Idaho as Lt. Governor. As Idaho’s 31st Governor, I cut property taxes and built a reputation as a no-nonsense & get-the-job-done leader. I served Ada County as Prosecuting Attorney.

Ray J. Writz: I have run for State Rep. and State Senate a number of times. I pay attention to what is going on in the World and on the national level. As a third party candidate, I would add a new dimension as a possible balance to the U.S. Senate in how it could be run.

Q: 2 What would you like to accomplish as a member of the U.S. Senate?

Natalie M. Fleming: Open a realistic path to home ownership for every American Family. Protect the American people from both foreign and domestic invasive surveillance. Open up Higher Education through online free video of every federally funded university course partnered with minimal fee testing for full college credit. Implement Micro-Climate Management through water retention landscapes, forest management, holistic land managment, supporting farmers, ranchers, and regenerative agriculture. Let the farmers work.

Paulette Jordan: Healthcare reform, environmental protection and fiscal accountability. The problem with healthcare is, according to experts, that the system cannot be fixed and must be rebuilt. I have a plan to rebuild it. Second, Idaho farmers and ranchers already know that we must protect the quality of our land for it to remain viable. We must take steps to protect our land. Third, we need to come up with a plan to reduce our national debt in order to remain competitive in this global economy.

Jim Risch: 1) Stopping another pandemic from reaching this country. As Foreign Relations Chairman, I’m leading bipartisan legislation to create an int’l agency to respond rapidly to any new threat and investigating China’s lies. 2) Creating jobs and rebuilding our economy. Tax cuts and deregulation, not tax increases, will lead us back to prosperity. 3) Creating an affordable health care plan that includes coverage for preexisting conditions and allows patients to choose their own plans and doctors.

Ray J. Writz: I would work at trying to get both parties to work together for the best of the country instead of their own self interest.

Q: 3 Should the government be doing more to secure our elections, and to investigate and prevent interference by foreign governments? Explain.

Natalie M. Fleming: Citizens must do more to secure our elections by working as poll workers, and poll observers. Thankfully, some elections clerks are establishing live feeds for us to watch workers. Elections must be run at the local level. We can fight foreign influence on the technology side preventing international access to national social media during the 90 days prior to the general election. Individuals must wake up and be aware of Foreign political “trolls” polarizing the American public.

Paulette Jordan: One of the areas in which our country is most vulnerable to attack is in the area of cybersecurity. I would propose legislation to strengthen our cybersecurity in many areas, including preventing election interference. In addition to being under investigation for receiving illegal foreign campaign contributions, our current Sen. Risch has actually prevented significant progress on securing elections in other areas. The DASKAA legislation would have helped greatly, but Risch personally killed it.

Jim Risch: On the Intelligence Committee, I’ve seen foreign adversaries’ efforts to disrupt the US electoral process through disinformation and cyber espionage. Thankfully our decentralized election system serves as a natural barrier against wide-spread meddling. Efforts by DHS and the Idaho National Lab have helped boost the defenses of local officials and secure our voting machines. We’ll continue cooperation between our defense agencies, and state and local officials. Idaho’s election will be secure.

Ray J. Writz: Yes I would secure elections by use of blockchain technology to stop people from voting more than once and that are legal citizens according to the U.S. Constitution. To prevent foreign interference we need all citizens educated in the Constitution and other founding documents from Grade school and up so that they can tell what is being said. I know that we have interfered with other countries elections and it needs to be stopped, but we must watch what other countries are doing also.

Q: 4. Please explain where you see opportunities for Democrats and Republicans to find common ground on the serious issues facing our country.

Natalie M. Fleming: Only after all voices are heard can we create complete creative solutions. The American people are done with polarized policies that put half the country in distress. Republicans and Democrats must leave the party and free the American people from their masquerade of divisiveness. America is the only power capable of destroying America and our enemies know it. Partisan free solutions are the most complete solutions. It’s time for Idaho to wake up the nation and send an Independent Senator to DC.

Paulette Jordan: There is much more work to be done in the area of rebuilding our healthcare system. I feel confident that I can help lead the charge to break down this issue from a hyper-partisan level and promote a healthcare system which rewards cost-effective data-driven care that leads to Americans getting well, which should be the ultimate goal. I feel strongly that we can also find common ground on policy to protect our land for our farmers and to make more fiscally responsible policy across the board.

Jim Risch: During this Congress alone, I’ve sponsored many pieces of bipartisan legislation. These include efforts to promote research and development at the Idaho National Lab, wildfire prevention, the Global Heath Act to stop the next pandemic before it reaches our shores, small business disaster assistance for rural communities, and a comprehensive China policy bill. It is important to seek opportunities to work together and find common ground on immigration reform and the reduction of our nation debt.

Ray J. Writz: Right now they are fighting and are not willing to work together for the best of the country. They need to look at their children and great grand children and think through what they are doing to their future, if they cared about them. This is the major common ground they should always have in mind when dealing with the major problems that the country now faces.

Q: 5 What, if any, steps would you take to reform immigration policies?

Natalie M. Fleming: Despite what you may have heard, Immigrants are not our enemies, nor do they seek to destroy America. Fear of Immigrants has NEVER been a conservative value. Immigration law needs to be clear, concise and navigitable within a reasonable amount of time. Armed Service member deserve expedited citizenship. Idaho Farmers have asked for more migrant worker permits and a 12 month H1C. But the best way to manage immigration is to send teachers overseas to teach people to build their own nations. WWJD.

Paulette Jordan: This is a complex issue which requires a multi-faceted solution and a compassionate, people-first approach. First, the system is backlogged and overburdened in such a way that the response to its inefficiency is illegal immigration. We cannot continue down that path. Providing more opportunities immigrants to work legally in the U.S. will ease tensions at the border. We need legislation to address the issues of legal immigration, border security, and enforcement separately, as they are complex.

Jim Risch: Strong border security is the first step in immigration reform. We are a nation of laws; legal immigrants should enter easily and non-legal must be blocked. We need common-sense guest worker programs. When a US worker is unavailable, employers turn to these programs, which are hindered by caps and process delays that prevent vetted and qualified immigrants from entering legally. I support streamlining existing guest worker programs as elements of a more secure and functional immigration system.

Ray J. Writz: We need to stop the illegal aliens from coming in due to the job market that is now happening do to the COVID-19 virus lockdowns that have not worked. They should only be allowed in when the times improve so that our own can go back to work first. I do favor immigration policies that allow the immigrants a chance to succeed to benefit themselves and the country as a whole.

Q: 6. What role should the federal government play in the American health care system?

Natalie M. Fleming: Federal mandates stifle healthy solutions. There are plenty of great health care solutions outside of Affordable Care Act. The Federal must help when the states cannot support lower income individuals and extreme cases. We can find a way to aid the most needy while allowing flexibility. Take a look at Direct Primary Care Doctors who take out the billing middleman and do house calls for a fraction of the $. Americans can do more for their personal health on a daily basis. 

Paulette Jordan: A report issued by the Institute of Medicine concluded that America’s healthcare system was so fragmented it could not be fixed incrementally; it had to be re-designed from the ground up. Policymakers have ignored this fundamental fact for nearly 20 years. I have a plan to rebuild the system entirely. Patient outcomes will be the central focus of the system. A strong focus will be placed on on data gathering, tracking and analysis. Shockingly, this is not how things currently work in healthcare.

Jim Risch: Government should ensure pre-existing conditions are covered by insurers. Next, the employer mandate must be eliminated. Compliance obligations are cumbersome and the related penalties faced by employers are burdensome. Relaxing regulations on grandfathered health plans is a priority. Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) should be incentivized. Consumers can build savings, and HSAs generally provide more affordable coverage while empowering consumers to take ownership of their health care decisions.

Ray J. Writz: The Federal Government should be out of the health care system do to the fact it has already messed it up on epic scale already. There should private competition to help bring down the cost of medicine and private Insurance. The only roll the Government should is to make sure that new ways of doing things and medicines do not harm people.

Q: 7. How do you see climate change affecting Idaho’s agricultural and urban communities?

Natalie M. Fleming: Farmers and ranchers have power with Micro Climate management. A bare field is 18° F hotter than a cover crop. We can “beaver up” every creek, legalize water retention landscapes, keep the water where it lands, maximize foliage, use cover crops, low-till, no-till, and rotate livestock with cloven hooves that break up the soil, graze, pee and stomp in compost. Plants protect the soil, cool the earth while releasing aerosols that promote low lying rain clouds. 

Paulette Jordan: In Idaho, climate change is already affecting us in many ways, especially in our agriculture and environmental arenas. It affects everything from snowpack melting, to increased wildfires and smoke issues, drier seasons for farmers’ seeding or planting. Climate change affects the health and survival of our environment, including our forests and wildlife. These issues also affect our state’s economy, including in the agriculture sector, but also in energy production, outdoor recreation, and more.

Jim Risch: The climate is changing—science and basic observation confirm it. As debate continues on the causes, we should reasonably reduce greenhouse gases while providing an ecosystem for businesses to thrive. Idaho has shown we can balance energy production and maintain our state’s pristine nature and pro-business economy. I’ve encouraged the creation of carbon-free alternatives like hydro, nuclear and geothermal. A combination of these can minimize environmental & financial impacts on Idaho families.

Ray J. Writz: We need to understand that the climate is driven by the Sun and we have very little affect on the over all climate on the planet. We can have a small effect on our own local areas if do not manage these areas well. How we plant, rotate, and water will have a large impact on crop yields and quality of food that is produced, so that we work with the natural environment, not against it.

Idaho U.S. House District 1

Evans, Joe.jpg

Joe Evans

Name: Joe Evans

Russ Fulcher mug cropped

Russ fulcher

Guest columnist

Name: Russ Fulcher

Rudy Soto

Rudy Soto

Name: Rudy Soto


Q: 1. What experience has prepared you to represent Idaho in the U.S. House of Representatives?

Joe Evans: My military leadership experience and 6 years of local activism in areas of environmentalism, veterans’ issues, LGBQT+, PTSI, violence against women and children, has given me the breadth of experience and knowledge needed to hit the ground running in Congress on day 1.

Russ Fulcher: First of all, my faith and family. I am a currently representing Idaho in congress. Prior to that I was a state senator for 10 years. I also have 14 years life experience as a RE broker and 20+ years traveling the world while in senior roles at Idaho tech companies. Having grown up on an Idaho dairy farm, and now with 3 adult children, life has thrown a lot at me – preparing me well. And although “life” is the best educator, I have a few college degrees too…and that doesn’t hurt.

Rudy Soto: I hope to bring a new perspective to the Idaho’s congressional delegation and to reflect parts of the state’s population who currently don’t see a representative that can relate to their experiences. I would set a new standard by joining bipartisan caucuses and efforts that contribute solutions and dedicating myself to breaking down partisan gridlock by working across the political aisle and putting the people of Idaho’s interests first.

Q: 2. What would you like to accomplish as a member of Congress?

Joe Evans: Bring Our Troops Home is a huge issue for me and something I consider an essential ingredient to supporting our troops and establishing peace in our time. I also see justice reform as another priority with the removal of non-violent victimless crimes from legislation, so that police can focus on violence in our communities.

Russ Fulcher: Over the last 2 years during an extremely trying period in DC, I’ve been blessed with a fabulous staff and the ability to build positive relationships with Idaho’s federal delegation and other members. But impeachment proceedings and a virus pandemic has taken a toll on our state and the nation. Government involvement in the lives of citizens, good or bad, is at an unprecedented level. Now I need to help Idahoans re-open the pathway to prosperity and liberty as much as possible.

Rudy Soto: My career has been dedicated to public service as demonstrated by my time in the military, government, & work with national non-profit tribal organizations in the fields of child welfare, health policy, and economic development. The positions I have held make me well rounded when it comes to thinking through the different layers & consequences of policy making & implementation. I understand the needs for balancing the input & acquiring the perspectives of opposing interests and stakeholders.

Q: 3. Should the government be doing more to secure our elections, and to investigate and prevent interference by foreign governments? Explain

Joe Evans: Yes. Electronic tampering is a reality that must be countered, requiring a physically verifiable count, and the integrity of election officials continues to be a problem across the US. Idaho has a nice triple check process that is easily audited, with a signature required with the issuance of the ballot, the ballot itself, and the electronic reader and transmission. This leaves an auditable paper trail, speedy transmission for initial count, and 3 separate counts that should match.

Russ Fulcher: Most foreign interference happens via social media, which augment or hinder messages through a filter of “algorithms”. Those algorithms act much like a newspaper editorial board. Major social media outlets deem themselves “platforms” (ie: bulletin boards) not “publishers” (ie: newspapers). This provides some legal insulation but they still have responsibility. Social media channels must operate with transparency by telling users what’s promoted or blocked and what posts are from foreign sources.

Rudy Soto: Yes. The revelations that have come out regarding Russia meddling in the 2016 election is deeply disturbing. It is essential that we thoroughly review what went wrong with our safeguards & shore up the weaknesses in our electoral system that failed. We must be forward thinking as it relates to preventing cyber intrusions & unite around solutions that will secure elections against foreign interference involving domestic collaborators, while maintaining equitable access to voting for all citizens.

Q: 4. Please explain where you see opportunities for Democrats and Republicans to find common ground on the serious issues facing our country.

Joe Evans: Incarceration for victimless crimes is one area ripe for cooperation. 19 years of war without a plan to bring our troops home should be a human rights priority for our Veterans and allies. Violence against women and children is under reported and routinely mishandled in our courts. Violence against Indigenous communities and establishing true Indigenous sovereignty is an opportunity for intersectional cooperation.

Russ Fulcher: There are many common ideas and room to negotiate between the parties on things like tax policy, health care policy, infrastructure and commerce related issues. But there is far less common ground on trends toward socialism and things like abortion rights and 2nd amendment issues. On the former, we need sit down together in good faith and get it done. On the latter, we exercise our right granted in this republic, by voting. Majority rules.

Rudy Soto: Health Care: We all acknowledge that the healthcare system we have is too expensive & prescription drug prices need to be brought down. Infrastructure: The economy will need to be brought back & investment to rebuild, repair, and expand the nation’s overall infrastructure would be a boost for everyone. Immigration Reform: The realization for many that agricultural workers are essential creates an opportunity for Congress to tackle the task of creating a path to legalization & citizenship.

Q: 5. What, if any, steps would you take in reforming immigration policies?

Joe Evans: Remove the limits on Visa programs, allowing anyone who enters to work and provide a simplified path to citizenship for any who want. Standard background checks against records from country of origin to ensure the immigrants don’t have a criminal record in violation of United States standards of behavior. Remove the priority for family entry and processing so that children aren’t bought and sold to facilitate entry into the United States.

Russ Fulcher: Secure our borders, enforce the law, and structure entitlement programs to encourage everyone to follow the law.

Rudy Soto: As the son of a Mexican immigrant who gained permanent status under the Reagan Administration, I am wholeheartedly supportive of comprehensive immigration reform: Modernize & revamp the immigrant visa system; Provide a path to citizenship for DACA recipients, people who are undocumented, & people with Temporary Protected Status; Update the process for gaining admission to the U.S.; Do everything within my power to reunite families that have been ripped apart along our southern border.

Q: 6. What role should the federal government play in America’s health care system?

Joe Evans: None. Fraud, waste, and abuse continues to create rising costs in American healthcare and the primary culprit is federal gatekeeping agencies and regulations. Healthcare needs to be regulated at the community, where fraud, waste and abuse can be easily detected and managed through transparency in pricing and services using state and non-profit watchdog agencies.

Russ Fulcher: The federal government should promote policies that encourage market-based healthcare systems, competition, and pricing transparency. The federal government should also ensure foreign interests reimburse the US Treasury for their pro-rata usage portion of funds paid by the US taxpayer for pharmaceutical development.

Rudy Soto: Improving the healthcare system is one of the main reasons that moved me to run for Congress. My father lost his health insurance after he lost his factory job & shortly after was diagnosed with cancer. He couldn’t get quality care in time, & passed away abruptly months later. I believe healthcare is a human right & that the federal government should move towards affordable universal healthcare coverage. The pandemic has exposed our healthcare system’s shortcoming, & urgent action must be taken.

Q: 7. How do you see climate change affecting Idaho’s agricultural and urban communities?

Joe Evans: Climate change is real and we need to consider cost effective replacements. By removing federal and state subsidies AND barriers to energy technologies, the market will quickly sort itself out, giving rise to sustainable renewables. Bio-fuels, solar, wind, and hydro with micro applications as well as larger energy farms for industry and residential uses are affordable technologies available now if we allowed the true cost of power to be realized.

Russ Fulcher: To the extent carbon emissions contribute to climate change, China and India are the greatest offenders. US levels of emissions have steadily declined (except for that caused by wildfires), now down to levels of the 1980’s. Impacts on Idahoans depend on federal policy. If US policy demands rapid transfer from traditional energy sources, away from current improvement strategies, our economy will crash and national security will be at risk. If the policy is wise, gradual improvement, all benefit.

Rudy Soto: Irrigation & water usage will continue to be barriers for small & big time farmers. We must reckon with the impact that the four lower snake river dams have had on the ecosystem, specifically the impact on indigenous communities & the decrease, or elimination, of salmon returning back to the rivers. For urban communities, there must be sustainable approaches to growth, urban development, & infrastructure upgrades that can help us meet the need to implement major improvements to public transit.

Idaho U.S. House District 2

Name: Idaho Sierra Law

  • Party: Libertarian
  • Mailing Address: Pocatello, 83201

Name: Pro-Life

  • Party: Con
  • Mailing Address: Emmett, 83617
  • Campaign Phone: (208) 365-4262
  • Website:

Mike Simpson

Rep. Mike Simpson

Name: Mike Simpson

Aaron Swisher

Democrat Aaron Swisher speaks to supporters during a meet and greet at Dr. Ken Krell’s home on Tuesday, Sept. 4, 2018. Swisher is running for the 2nd Congressional District against incumbent Republican Mike Simpson. John Roark/ [email protected]

Name: C Aaron Swisher


Q: 1. What experience has prepared you to represent Idaho in the U. S. House of Representatives?

Idaho Sierra Law: Did not submit a survey response. 

Pro-Life: I have spent 50+ years studying American government and participating in politics. My B.A. is in Political Science. My only motive is to tell the truth regarding how God would have us conduct government. Scripture is more important to me than political philosophy. I have run once for state legislature, 3 times for Governor, 2 times for US Senate, 3 times for US Congress, and one time for fire commissioner. I probably will never be elected because I speak what I believe.

Mike Simpson: My experience working at the local, state and federal level have allowed me to work with nearly every group and many individuals across the state. I am also the top Republican on the Energy and Water Subcommittee on Appropriations which plays a critical role in supporting the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls.

C Aaron Swisher: I have experienced the falling standard of living that most working-class individuals have experienced, particularly in comparison with the living standard our parents enjoyed. I have an educational background that helps me to understand the causes of this fall in living standards and the policies necessary to fix it. I have also had enough international experiences to develop a well-rounded understanding of America’s place in the global community.

Q: 2. What would you like to accomplish as a member of Congress?

Pro-Life: I would use my resources to investigate lies and corruption. I would speak openly regarding all matters. The congressional leaders would not like my style. I would cite Article and Section of the Constitution on all of my votes. I would be the most constitutional member of Congress.

Mike Simpson: Deficit reduction and economic recovery in the wake of the Coronavirus crisis. The debt and deficit continue to hamper our ability to make investments in the most critical functions of our government such as education, infrastructure, and our military. I have long cosponsored the balanced budget amendment, and we also need to look at reforming mandatory programs to help achieve fiscal responsibility. Combating unnecessary and harmful regulations is also very important for our economy.

C Aaron Swisher: I have three main goals as a member of Congress: establish an economy that is fair to both workers and employers; ensure that our economic activity is done in a way that is sustainable for the environment; and bring the federal budget into balance.

Q: 3. Should the government be doing more to secure our elections, and to investigate and prevent interference by foreign governments? Explain

Pro-Life: No, foreign governments do no really affect our elections, they try. Money from foreign government lobbyists is a huge problem and that is where we should expose many members of government as being corrupt in both parties. Members of Congress receive hidden PAC money for their campaigns from foreign donors. The Clintons, Bidens, and Obama were the worst offenders.

Mike Simpson: I vigorously oppose foreign intervention in U.S. elections. Election security is a national security concern, and I support the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security to partner with states to protect against attacks on our election infrastructure. Securing elections is primarily a responsibility of states. As Congress considers election security issues, we must resist the urge to strip states of their ability to conduct elections in ways that best suit the needs of their communities.

C Aaron Swisher: Absolutely; our election system lies at the heart of the representative form of government established by our forefathers. If we lose faith in the functioning of this system, our faith in our government and its ability to represent the people will crumble.

Q: 4. Please explain where you see opportunities for Democrats and Republicans to find common ground on the serious issues facing our country.

Pro-Life: The struggle for power is too great to ever find common ground. The only way to solve the problem would be for most in Congress to accept Jesus’ invitation to give up all selfishness and become totally truthful. The voters are selfish and elect people that reflect their spiritual sickness, this is the real problem. Maybe we could stop the murder of pre-born babies and the LGBTQ agenda if we were not fake Christians.

Mike Simpson: President Trump recently signed the Great American Outdoors Act, legislation I authored in 2017 to fund land conservation programs and maintenance programs. I believe we should take care of and preserve public lands where possible so future generations can enjoy the outdoors. This was a bipartisan vote in the House and Senate in addition to having the Administration’s support. We can use this example to help on future issues like immigration reform, infrastructure and supporting our military.

C Aaron Swisher: I see the potential for common ground in almost every issue. What is required is the ability to educate others regarding each issue, AND the willingness to be educated regarding each issue. This is why honesty, facts, and science are so important in our debate. They provide a common foundation upon which both sides can meet to discuss issues, if they are upheld.

Q: 5. What, if any, steps would you take in reforming immigration policies?

Pro-Life: We do not need reform of policy, generally. We need enforcement of existing laws. Neither party wants enforcement. Trump could have secured the border on day one with people, military etc. All illegal crossings could have been stopped long ago. I would fund enforcement.

Mike Simpson: I’ll continue working to find the best ways to enforce our borders and set new guidelines for immigration procedures. I’ve cosponsored bills to give law enforcement power to detain criminals who are illegal immigrants, prohibit states from issuing driver’s licenses, expedite and fund construction of a border fence, and prohibit access to Social Security by illegal immigrants. I’ve worked with our farmers and ranchers, who depend on guest worker labor, to explore options to reform this program.

C Aaron Swisher: I would hire more immigration judges to prevent backlogs in immigration courts. Separating children from their parents, because the U.S. has failed to invest in an efficient immigration processing system is simply unacceptable. I would invest in systems that prevent immigrants from overstaying their visas but allow extensions for law-abiding immigrants. I would prevent legal work visas from being used to undermine American workers. And I would support greater border security.

Q: 6. What role should the federal government play in America’s health care system?

Pro-Life: None. Health care is not a proper role of government. The government should never mandate health care practices like forced vaccination, chemo, pharmacy.

Mike Simpson: Government run healthcare creates significant challenges for doctors because often Medicare bills at a lower rate than the private insurance market for certain services. We should not create less incentive for doctors to practice medicine at a time when the AAMC predicts a physician shortage of more than 100,000 by 2030. I also have concerns with costs surrounding government run health care proposals. One estimate shows that Senator Bernie Sanders’ plan would cost $32.6 trillion over 10 years.

C Aaron Swisher: Healthcare markets do not operate in the same manner as other markets. Because of these differences, and the necessity of the services provided by the healthcare system, the government should have a more active role in this market than it does in other markets. I believe that the government should act as the single payer in the healthcare market to help balance out the negotiating power of healthcare companies and ensure that Americans can obtain reasonably priced healthcare services.

Q: 7. How do you see climate change affecting Idaho’s agricultural and urban communities?

Pro-Life: Climate change is a device by international socialists to bring about world government. I am against cloud seeding, HARP, and any of man’s efforts to alter the weather. I am for outlawing chemicals that pollute the earth, our animals, plants, and our bodies.

Mike Simpson: I have talked with many farmers and other Idahoans about the various issues related to climate change. As Ranking Member of the House Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee and a member of the House Interior and Environment Appropriations Subcommittee, I have long been a supporter of renewable energy, and in Idaho we certainly understand the importance of it through geothermal in Boise and the incredible research and innovation with nuclear energy technologies at the Idaho National Lab.

C Aaron Swisher: It will have a detrimental effect on Idaho’s agricultural community – as climate and weather patterns become less predictable and more extreme – leading to a loss of revenue for Idaho’s farmers and ranchers. Urban areas may experience greater growth as people move from more fire-prone. This growth is not necessarily a good thing. Ultimately, I believe that the United States should take bold, aggressive action to reduce our creation of greenhouse gases and our use of fossil fuels.